Role Overload and Job Demands

In the US greater work and family overload was associated with greater time- and strain-based WIF, whereas greater family overload was associated with greater time- and strain-based FIW(Ishaya & Ayman, 2008). In Canada higher work overload was related to greater WIF conflict and WIF guilt. Higher family overload was related to higher FIW conflict and WIF and FIW guilt. Greater job demands were associated with more WIF conflict, whereas greater family demands were associated with more FIW conflict (Korabik & Lero, 2004; Korabik, McElwain & Lero, 2009). Moreover, in Canada, for managers reduced work hours were associated with lower work overload and less WIF, whereas for non-managers flexible scheduling was associated with higher job control and less WIF (Oliver, McElwain, Korabik, & Lero, 2008).

Job and Family Satisfaction; Turnover Intent

In the US, greater time-based FIW was related to less job satisfaction, whereas greater strain-based WIF was related to less family satisfaction (Velgach, Ishaya, & Ayman, 2006). In Canada, greater WIF was associated with less job satisfaction, whereas greater FIW was assocaited with less family satisfaction. Moreover,higher job demands were related to more WIF and greater WIF was associated with higher turnover intentions(Korabik et al., 2009). In Taiwan, greater work and family overload were associated with greater WIF and FIW. Higher WIF and FIW were related to lower job and family satisfaction (Huang, 2009).

Positive Spillover

In Australia, higher work-family positive spillover was related to higher job satisfaction and lower psychological distress and turnover intent. By contrast, higher family-work positive spillover was related to higher family satisfaction and lower psychological distress. Positive spillover originating from both work and home buffered the effects of negative spillover on job satisfaction and psychological distress (Haar & Bardoel, 2007, 2009).

Gender-Role Attitudes

Those in US, Canada and Spain were higher in gender-role egalitarianism than those in Taiwan. In all five countries, those with traditional attitudes were higher than those with egalitarian attitudes in both WIF and FIW (Poelmans, Ayman, Korabik, Rajadhyaksha, Huang, Lero & Desai, 2006). In India both men and women with traditional attitudes were higher than those with egalitarian attitudes in WIF and FIW (Rajadhyaksha & Velgach, 2009). In the US gender role attitudes were a better predictor of W-F conflict than gender. Those with traditionals attitudes were higher than those with egalitarian attitudes in both time- and strain-based WIF and FIW (Velgach, Ayman, Antani, & Ishaya, 2006; Velgach, Ishaya, & Ayman, 2006).

Coping and Gender-Role Attitudes

In Israel Somech and Drach-Zahavy (2007) found that 8 categories of coping were differentially related to WIF and FIW for men and women with traditional vs. egalitarian gender-role attitudes. Their 8 coping categories were: delegate at home and at work, good enough at home and at work, prioitize at home and at work, and super at home and at work.

Work-Family Guilt

In Canada, higher WIF conflict was associated with higher WIF guilt. Greater FIW conflict was directly related to greater FIW guilt. WIF guilt partially mediated the relationship between WIF conflict and psychological distress(Korabik & Lero, 2004; Korabik, McElwain & Lero, 2009).

Satisfaction with Supervisor and Policies

In the US, family-friendly organizational policies were related to lower strain-based WIF and time-based FIW (Velgach, Ishaya, & Ayman, 2006). In Canada, the more that men were satisfied with their supervisor and organizational policies, the less WIF they reported. Lower WIF was in turn associateed with higher job satisfaction, better ease of balancing and lower turnover intent. By contrast, the more that women were satisfied with organizational policies, the less WIF they reported. For women, lower WIF and FIW were associated with better ease of balancing (Lero, Korabik, & McElwain, 2006).